Monday, July 10, 2017

Reflection - Paul's Feeling and Temptation

Source (book): "Faithful to the end", Chapter 1, Question 1, Page 10.
By Robert M. Solomon, Bishop of the Methodist Church in Singapore from 2000 - 2012


Paul's circumstances when he wrote 2 Timothy
PHOTO: Paul's circumstances when he wrote 2 Timothy
Paul the faithful aged apostle was facing martyrdom when he worte the epistle of 2 Timothy. It was  written like a farewell discourse to his favourite spiritual son and apprentice Timothy. Unlike his first imprisonment in Rome, which was more of a home arrest (Acts 28:30), this time Paul was in a dungeon. He faced many charges and already had an initial trial, during which he felt abandoned and defenceless. He awaited a final trial and was quite sure that it would end with his death. Here was a lonely apostle, save for the presence of the Lord (2 Timothy 4:17), and the faithful company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker (2 Timothy 4:11).

How Paul managed to write the epistle while in chain
Paul used an amanuensis at times—a scribe who wrote down his letters as he dictated them—and this person could be Luke the physician and his long time co-worker (2 Timothy 4:11). All others had abandoned him during his second imprisonment in Rome. Although he were chained, he probably managed to write the epistle through the help of Luke.

2 Timothy illuminates what was foremost in the apostle's mind. Paul encouraged Timothy to be united with Christ by reminding him of his calling and his commitment to the gospel. He urged Timothy to be useful to Christ by remaining true to his Lord and to fulfil his calling faithfully. Difficult days were ahead and Paul was concerned about false teachers and the deadly danger to the church they brought. He was concerned that pastors and churches would remain faithful to their Lord amid the decaying society, to be unlike the world. In reading 2 Timothy we get a sense of relentless faithfulness to Jesus, even in the midst of martyrdom and death, until the end.

Evidence while in imprisonment (about Paul's feeling and temptation):

  • Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart and feelings for Christ (United with Christ, Useful to Christ, Unlike the world, and Faithfulness to Jesus until the end) - Emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ.
  • Paul is still on his ministry (2 Timothy 4:9-13)
  • Paul felt abandoned and defenceless (2 Timothy 4:16)
  • Paul felt and knew that his Lord would not abandon him (2 Timothy 4:18)
  • Instruction about temptation by evil desires of youth (2 Timothy 2:22).

We have little faith and no trust in God during similar difficult circumstances (example, an imminent crisis)
There is not enough faith in God, but having faith in human power, through our own courage and wisdom to overcome an imminent crisis. We lack the trust or do not trust in God to help us. That is everybody's struggle - maybe with a little faith but no trust in God.
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Reflect on Paul's circumstances when he wrote 2 Timothy. If he was chained, how do you think he managed to write the epistle? After you read through the epistle, what evidence do you find that may say something about what Paul felt and what temptation he may have faced in imprisonment? How would you respond to similar difficult circumstances in your life?

Reflect on Paul's circumstances when he wrote 2 Timothy.

2 Timothy as a Farewell Discourse (written or spoken communication or debate) [1]
Paul facing martyrdom

The epistle of 2 Timothy is written like a farewell discourse. It is a highly personal document, a deeply moving farewell message, from Paul the faithful aged apostle facing martyrdom to his favourite spiritual son and apprentice Timothy. It is a letter that is full of personal details and feelings. In his commentary, Bishop Handley Moule tells of how difficult it was to read 2 Timothy "without finding something like a mist gahering in the eyes." [4]

 

Paul facing martyrdom
PHOTO: Paul facing martyrdom
The epistle of 2 Timothy is written like a farewell discourse. It is a highly personal document, a deeply moving farewell message, from Paul the faithful aged apostle facing martyrdom to his favourite spiritual son and apprentice Timothy. It is a letter that is full of personal details and feelings.
Picture posted by Intellectual Reserve, Inc - Soldiers escort Paul to his execution
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Paul felt abandoned and defenceless
Paul was probably arrested and imprisoned around AD 64, during the reign of the wicked and mad emperor Nero. Nero is said to have blamed the Christians when a significant part of Rome was destroyed by fire. Christians underwent a time of severe persecution from AD 64 to AD 68 till Nero died. Historical records show that Nero persecuted many Christians in the cruellest manner. It was chronicled that "he caused them to be wrapped up in pitched clothes, and then, chaining them to a stake he ordered them to be set on fire to give light to in the streets after night!" [5] Paul was arrested at this time. Unlike his first imprisonment in Rome, which was more of a home arrest (
Acts 28:30), this time Paul was in a dungeon. He faced many charges and already had an initial trial, during which he felt abandoned and defenceless. He awaited a final trial and was quite sure that it would end with his death. Christian tradition has it that Paul was incarcerated (imprison) in the infamous Mamertine prison in Rome - "a dismal underground chamber with a single hole in the ceiling for light and air." [6] It was literally a "hell hole".


Tradition has it that during his second imprisonment Paul was detained in the Mamertine Prison in Rome.
PHOTO: Tradition has it that during his second imprisonment Paul was detained in the Mamertine Prison in Rome.
As Paul wrote Second Timothy, he had none of the optimism expressed in his earlier letters, when he expected release. He had obtained a preliminary hearing, and it had been a dismal failure (
2 Timothy 4:16). Though he found himself in dire circumstances, he delivered what sometimes has been called his valedictory (farewell), for he was about to "graduate." "For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing" (2 Timothy 4:6-8) (Eds. Pfeiffer & Vos, 1996). [12]
Photo ©Leon Mauldin. - Mamertine Prison in Rome
Posted by Leon's Message Board on Thursday, 24 July 2014 at 1:46 PM

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Paul had the company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker
So in effect, Paul was on death row. He knew that his earthly life was going to end. (According to ancient historians, Paul was beheaded in AD 67 by the Roman authorities [7]. There was not going to be another missionary journey. He would have no more opportunity to preach, or plant or visit churches. Here was a lonely apostle, save for the presence of the Lord (2 Timothy 4:17), and the faithful company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker (
2 Timothy 4:11). Paul thought about Timothy, and no doubt prayed for him. He knew he could have one final opportunity to make known his thoughts to Timothy - by writing to him. What would he say? What would he emphasise?


Paul had the company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker
PHOTO: Paul had the company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker
Paul was a lonely apostle, save for the presence of the Lord (
2 Timothy 4:17), and the faithful company of Luke the physician and his long time co-worker (
2 Timothy 4:11).
Picture posted by Jerold Aust on 20 January 2001
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If he (Paul) was chained, how do you think he managed to write the epistle?
Paul, the Missionary Author [2]
Not only did God use Paul as a great missionary in the early church, He also used the man to write a significant portion of the New Testament. Even Peter, the lead apostle, recognised Paul's writing as Scripture (2 Peter 3:15-16). In fact, Paul wrote 13 of the epistles in the New Testament. From the earliest days, his epistles, including 2 Timothy, were recognised by the early church as divinely inspired and had the ring of scriptural authority. Until the 19th century, Paul was recognised as the undisputed author of 2 Timothy. But modern scholars began to question this and today there is a school of thought that rejects Paul's authorship of the Pastoral Epistle (1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus) on grounds such as vocabulary differences and prevailing church structures.

They argue that compared to Paul's other epistles, the Pastoral Epistles deal with a more advanced church structure and leadership patterns (deacons and elders). Thus these scholars proposed that the Pastoral Epistles were written by someone else later in the second century. However, such notions have been counter-argued as groundless and unconvincing. There is no clear evidence or good reason to abandon the historical understanding that Paul is the author of the Pastoral Epistles. [2]


The Pastoral Epistles (1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus)
PHOTO: The Pastoral Epistles (1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus)
Not only did God use Paul as a great missionary in the early church, He also used the man to write a significant portion of the New Testament.
The Pastoral Epistles deal with a more advanced church structure and leadership patterns (deacons and elders). Thus these scholars proposed that the Pastoral Epistles were written by someone else later in the second century.  However, such notions have been counter-argued as groundless and unconvincing. There is no clear evidence or good reason to abandon the historical understanding that Paul is the author of the Pastoral Epistles.
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Among the Deutero-Pauline or "disputed" Paul’s letters in the New Testament, five or six are thought by many mainline and Catholic scholars to have been written after Paul's time. These disputed letters are, in the order they appear in the New Testament, Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus. These letters are questioned for various reasons. Some show a difference in theology and vocabulary compared to the undisputed letters of Paul. Since Paul used amanuenses, this does not guarantee that the letters were not in fact written by Paul. But the style and ideas seem sufficiently different from Paul's other letters that it is not unreasonable to question the authorship. [3]

Paul wrote very few of the letters sent under his name. Paul dictated the contents of many of his letters to others. Some of these people wrote in a style that indicates word-by-word dictation, while others seem to have taken his ideas and put them in the words that seemed best to them. Scholars believe that in a few cases other people took Paul's teaching and thoughts and composed letters in his name after his death. [3]



The Deutero-Pauline or 'disputed' Paul’s letters in the New Testament are, in the order they appear in the New Testament, Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus.
PHOTO: Deutero-Pauline Letters.
The Deutero-Pauline or "disputed" Paul’s letters in the New Testament are, in the order they appear in the New Testament, Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus. These letters are questioned for various reasons. Some show a difference in theology and vocabulary compared to the undisputed letters of Paul.
Picture posted by Pablo Cuadra, Director of Religious Formation at Schott Communities at schottcommunities.org - The Bible 

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Paul used an amanuensis at times—a scribe who wrote down his letters as he dictated them—and this person could be Luke the physician and his long time co-worker (2 Timothy 4:11). All others had abandoned him during his second imprisonment in Rome. Although he was chained, he probably managed to write the epistle through the help of Luke. Luke was faithful because he had a job to do: writing a history of the early years of the Church founded by the man he had become convinced was the very Son of God, Jesus of Nazareth. Luke was faithful to God, to Jesus, to Their words and to the apostles. He was faithful to Paul as a trusted and loyal friend, standing by him in good times and bad. [13] Luke most likely took every opportunity to record Paul's dictation. Unfortunately there was no evidence to prove this.

Most Bible scholars agree that Acts was written around AD 63 and reflects events in the Church up until that time. Thus, if Luke wrote Acts [14] then, he must have written his Gospel a few years earlier, ca. AD 60-61. (As a postscript to the book of Acts, the Romans apparently released Paul from his house arrest shortly thereafter, but Nero later imprisoned him again and had him executed around AD 66.) The final chapter of Acts concludes with events that preceded Nero’s persecution of Christians (in AD 65) and Paul’s death. Otherwise Luke surely would have mentioned both. [13]



The times were trying for Paul.
PHOTO: The times were trying for Paul. He needed encouragement, which God provided through a friendly, sensitive physician, a man named Luke. One thing was more important to Luke than being Paul’s friend: his dedication as a servant of his Master, Jesus Christ. 2 Timothy emphasise mainly on the relationship to Christ. So although Paul was chained, he probably managed to write the epistle through the help of Luke. Luke most likely took every opportunity to record Paul's dictation. Unfortunately there was no evidence to prove this.
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After you read through the epistle, what evidence do you find that may say something about what Paul felt and what temptation he may have faced in imprisonment?
Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart and feelings for Christ (United with Christ, Useful to Christ, Unlike the world, and Faithfulness to Jesus until the end) - Emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ.
A dying man's words are very significant. He would say the most important things. The focus would be on the key truths and messages. Hence 2 Timothy illuminates what was foremost in the apostle's mind. Paul encouraged Timothy to be united with Christ by reminding him of his calling and his commitment to the gospel. He urged Timothy to be useful to Christ by remaining true to his Lord and to fulfil his calling faithfully. Difficult days were ahead and Paul was concerned about false teachers and the deadly danger to the church they brought. He was concerned that pastors and churches would remain faithful to their Lord amid the decaying society, to be unlike the world.



Paul encourage and remain Timothy of his calling and his commitment to the gospel.
PHOTO: Paul encourage and remain Timothy of his calling and his commitment to the gospel. He wanted Timothy to be united with Christ, useful to Christ, unlike the world and faithful till the end to Christ amid the decaying society.
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Paul opened his heart to reveal his innermost feelings and thoughts. He expressed his undying faith in his Lord and his confidence that God would vindicate him, if not in this world, then most certainly in the next. In reading 2 Timothy we get a sense of relentless faithfulness to Jesus, even in the midst of martyrdom and death, until the end.

We see the importance of the need to preserve the truth of the gospel and the faithful witness and life of the church. Thus Paul's emphasis is the gospel of Christ. Timothy is urged to guard it against all odds. At the heart of it is our relationship to Jesus Christ.



Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart and feelings for Christ (United with Christ, Useful to Christ, Unlike the world, and Faithfulness to Jesus until the end) - Emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ.
PHOTO: Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart and feelings for Christ (United with Christ, Useful to Christ, Unlike the world, and Faithfulness to Jesus until the end) - Emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ.
A dying man's words are very significant. He would say the most important things. The focus would be on the key truths and messages. Hence 2 Timothy illuminates what was foremost in the apostle's mind and heart. In reading 2 Timothy we get a sense of relentless faithfulness to Jesus, even in the midst of martyrdom and death, until the end. Paul's emphasis is the gospel of Christ. Timothy is urged to guard it against all odds. At the heart of it is our relationship to Jesus Christ.
Picture posted by Ilma Silva on Pinterest - Jesus I love you, good night friend
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Paul is still on his ministry (2 Timothy 4:9-13)
Paul's feeling of loneliness, abandoned and helplessness (2 Timothy 4:16)
Paul's feeling of loneliness, abandoned and helplessness was evident when he mentioned being deserted by everyone (2 Timothy 4:16). He also wanted to keep in touch with Timothy and Mark. He is still on his ministry  (
2 Timothy 4:9-13). [8a]
Right to the end, Paul was keen to let the reign of Christ be expressed fully in all areas of his life. His approach to Christian discipleship was always holistic. He recognized that God has created us as embodied and social beings, with a spirit that would be empty without God. Therefore, even at the end of his life, Paul revealed his various needs - physical, intellectual, social, and most importantly, spiritual. Impending death is not reason enough to stop functioning in any of these areas. Hence, right to the end, we see Paul praying and relating with the Lord, taking care of his simple physical needs, reading and writing, and keeping in touch with his dear friends. Here was a healthy and holy life, lived holistically and well. [8]


Paul's feeling of loneliness, abandoned and helplessness (2 Timothy 4:16) PHOTO: Paul's feeling of loneliness, abandoned and helplessness (
2 Timothy 4:16)
Even as a prisoner, he saw the purpose of God and sought to be useful to his Lord. His passion to proclaim Christ and to make Him known was not chained or defeated by adversity, prison or an impending death sentence. Paul was not a superhuman and so he had human needs - physical, intellectual, social, and emotional, which he sought to meet legitimately and simply. His feeling of loneliness, abandoned and helplessness was evident when he mentioned being deserted by everyone (
2 Timothy 4:16). He also wanted to keep in touch with Timothy and Mark (
2 Timothy 4:9-13). [8a]
Picture posted by Steve Thomason.
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Instruction about temptation by evil desires of youth (2 Timothy 2:22).
Paul continues his point about purity of life and doctrine by exhorting Timothy: "Flee the evil desires of youth" (2 Timothy 2:22). The evil desires of youth are not confined to sexual lust, but also youthful unbridled (uncontrolled) ambition, hot-headed impulsiveness, provocative aggression and so on. The word "flee" (Greek pheugō) refers to the determined and urgent actions taken to escape from danger. [9]


Instruction about temptation by evil desires of youth (2 Timothy 2:22).
PHOTO: Instruction about temptation by evil desires of youth (
2 Timothy 2:22)
In the case of temptation, however, instead of resisting, the biblical advice is to flee. The person who foolishly tries to fight temptation is like the man who closes his door when temptation knocks but leaves the door unlocked.
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Perhaps those who are older, and who are not so youths, may regard Paul's exhortation as irrelevant to them. But as they say, those who consider themselves to be "young at heart" even though they may be in their later decades, must also watch against "youthful desires". We see too many seniors these days regress into their character in their younger days, such as seeking to look young in appearance or singing the adolescent songs - they must heed Paul's advice, for it applies to them too. They must flee youthful desires and grow up to Christian maturity. This spiritual principle of hard work is something that people steeped (falling sharply) in our modern hedonistic (engaged in the pursuit of pleasure; sensually self-indulgent) culture would find difficult to accept or follow. [9]


Instruction about temptation - The hedonistic pleasures
PHOTO: Instruction about temptation - The hedonistic pleasures
This spiritual principle of hard work is something that people steeped in our hedonistic culture would find difficult to accept or follow. We must heed Paul's advice, flee hedonistic pleasures and grow up to Christian maturity.
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Tying the above strands together, this inspiring epistle can be outlined in the following way, which form the four parts to this book:

2 Timothy 1:1-18: united with Christ
2 Timothy 2:1-26: Useful to Christ
2 Timothy 3:1-4:5: Unlike the World
2 Timothy 4:6-22: Until the End

Paul felt and knew that his Lord would not abandon him (2 Timothy 4:18)
As Paul awaited his second appearance in court, he was not sure what lay ahead. He may die soon, but whatever happened, he could trust his Lord. Even if he were put to death, he knew that his Lord would not abandon him, but would walk through death with him. As the psalmist in the well-known 23rd Psalm loses his audience when he comes to the valley of the shadow of death and speaks directly to God, so Paul knew that while no human being would be able to walk with him into death, his Lord would surely go with him. His Lord who had died and was raised would personally guide him safely through death and usher him into the eternal kingdom in the presence of God. [10]


Paul felt and knew that his Lord would not abandon him  (2 Timothy 4:18)
PHOTO: Paul felt and knew that his Lord would not abandon him (2 Timothy 4:18)
Paul knew that while no human being would be able to walk with him into death, his Lord would surely go with him. His Lord who had died and was raised would personally guide him safely through death and usher him into the eternal kingdom in the presence of God. He may die soon, but whatever happened, he could trust his Lord. Even if he were put to death, he knew that his Lord would not abandon him, but would walk through death with him.
"Even though I walk through the darkest valley,
I will fear no evil, for you are with me;
your rod and your staff, they comfort me.
" (Psalm 23:4)
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How would you respond to similar difficult circumstances in your life?
Flying at 38,000 feet the pilot, captain Ibrahim Jalaluddin, heard a sound which he took to be a collision between two metals.and the engine was not functioning. Mr Ibrahim's checks on the engine confirmed his theory, and he and his co-pilot Vincent Low shut down the engine before turning right and sending a mayday signal to the air traffic control centre in Perth, Australia. [11]

Mr Ibrahim said he then brought the plane - flying on a single engine - to a lower altitude of 25,000 feet (7,620m) as per standard procedure, in a bid to stabilise it.

"But when we were doing this, there was suddenly a terrible vibration. I and my assistant discussed the matter and looked at the position of the plane while considering our various options.

"We decided to reduce our speed to the minimum level allowed to reduce the vibration - but it did not work."

Mr Ibrahim call for the passengers to pray. Mr Ibrahim said he did so because he believes in God and surrendered himself to the higher power.

Mr Ibrahim had ignited controversy by telling passengers "I hope you all say a prayer. I will be saying a prayer too and let's hope we all get back home safely," during the emergency.

This difficult circumstance is similar to Paul's second time imprisonment in Rome when he may die soon. How we respond to such situation determines whether we have faith and trust in God.

  • Would You rather hear something like this: "We have a failed engine, but don’t worry, another engine is still functioning well and this aircraft is under our control so that we can get back to Perth safely." or suddenly the pilot announces, "Let’s pray that we may reach home safely." ?
  • Have faith in human power, through our own courage and wisdom to overcome an imminent crisis or surrender ourself to the Almighty?
  • Pin all our hopes on the people inside the cockpit or someone outside it? - Not a fair question because God could be inside the cockpit too.
  • Do you have faith and trust in the pilot or God?
  • Do you prefer a pilot or a priest / imam to be in control? - Not a fair question because the priest or imam may not know how to fly an aeroplane. But surely God can.

Passengers would fully depend on the pilot with all his professionalism to overcome whatever problems the aircraft may encounter to ensure everyone’s safety.
The pilot must make sure the passengers have faith in him and not to let everybody assume the aircraft was out of control. Or they could already have been in trouble even before the aircraft.


We have little faith and no trust in God during similar difficult circumstances (example, an imminent crisis)
As a believer in God and with such response, the issue is then clear. There is not enough faith in God, but having faith in human power, through our own courage and wisdom to overcome an imminent crisis. We lack the trust or do not trust in God to help us. That is everybody's struggle - maybe with a little faith but no trust in God. The pilot has more faith and trust in God. That is probably why many, including a passenger who was on the plane, have defended him against accusations that he was creating panic. According to God's standard he had done well. I am one of those who are still struggling with a little faith but no trust in God when difficult circumstances occur. I pray for God's understanding and forgiveness, and to help us!


We have little faith and no trust in God during similar difficult circumstances (example, an imminent crisis)
PHOTO: We have little faith and no trust in God during similar difficult circumstances (example, an imminent crisis)
AirAsia X flight D7237: Prayers at 38,000 feet.
This issue is clear. There is not enough faith in God, but having faith in human power, through our own courage and wisdom to overcome an imminent crisis. We lack the trust or do not trust in God to help us. That is everybody's struggle - maybe have faith but no trust in God.
Picture posted by Tay Tian Yan writing for Sin Chew Daily on 29 June 2017 - Pilot says he 'surrendered himself to the higher power' during crisis
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-fxonUy6rOb4/WVdlbTEMoAI/AAAAAAAAnTo/aTob2duBc_AR7xp45SdlTrY7UJTauze5QCLcBGAs/s1600/pray-AirAsia-X.jpg
http://s3media.freemalaysiatoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/pray-AirAsia-X.jpg
http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/opinion/2017/06/29/airasia-x-flight-d7237-prayers-at-38000-feet/
http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/07/airasia-captain-explains-call-for-prayer.html



Dear Lord, we are still struggling with a little faith but no trust in God when difficult circumstances occur. I pray for Your understanding and forgiveness, and to help us. <br>Let's Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart, feelings, and faithfulness to Jesus touches us. Let his emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ convert us to be united, useful and faithful disciples in sharing and protecting the gospel. Help us to carry out our double duties, of being in the world but unlike the world. May Your grace and blessing descend upon us for our salvation. Through Lord Jesus Christ we pray. Amen!
PHOTO: "Dear Lord, we are still struggling with a little faith but no trust in God when difficult circumstances occur. I pray for Your understanding and forgiveness, and to help us.
Let's Paul's dying words to Timothy about his mind, heart, feelings, and faithfulness to Jesus touches us. Let his emphasise on relationship to Jesus Christ convert us to be united, useful and faithful disciples in sharing and protecting the gospel. Help us to carry out our double duties, of being in the world but unlike the world. May Your grace and blessing descend upon us for our salvation. Through Lord Jesus Christ we pray. Amen!
"
Picture posted by Antonietta Lucadamo, Pinterest
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-EJy0Eint7hU/WWN-FkQAaJI/AAAAAAAAnXk/0YDpbI4JvSUDalfNhh0y6T6wG3LDOkt0wCLcBGAs/s1600/731925232_2085142.gif

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/VdfrfHNo_iAqHtozMBDhFhTmu7soG-pwYaPDgZErrneLwa4iG3SFSCNgK57eroql00YWMgIKzfgVf4avNP4=w1280-h768-no - (731925232_2085142.gif)
https://plus.google.com/photos/photo/102038987986196086104/6418259111619185922?icm=false

Reflection - Paul's Feeling and Temptation
By Robert M. Solomon, Bishop of the Methodist Church in Singapore from 2000 - 2012





Reference
[1] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, Chapter 1 "Introduction: A farewell"  (2 Timothy 1:1-2), Page 7-9.

[2] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, Chapter 1 "Introduction: A farewell"  (
2 Timothy 1:1-2), Page 2-3.

[3] Adam Hamilton, Who Really Wrote Paul's Letters?, posted on 17 July 2014, http://www.adamhamilton.org/blog/who-really-wrote-pauls-letters/#.WV2yNriYQz8

[4] Handley. C. G. Moule, The Second Epistle to Timothy, The Devotional commentary series (London: Religious Tract Society, 1905), 16.

[5] Adam Clarke, Commentary on the Bible, 2 Timothy 4:16, http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/act/view.cgi?bk=54&ch=4.

[6] Hughes and Chappell, 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus, 169.

[7] Ben Witherington III, Letters and Homilies for Hellenized Christians, vol. 1, A Sacio-Rhetorical Commentary on Titus, 1-2 Timothy and 1-3 John (Downets Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006) 306.

[8] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, PART FOUR: FAITHFUL TO THE END, Chapter 13 "Faithful To The End" (2 Timothy 4:16-22), Page 184-188.
Robert M. Solomon, Reflection - End of life, posted on Sunday, 30 April 2017, http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/04/reflection-end-of-life.html

[8a] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, PART FOUR: FAITHFUL TO THE END, Chapter 14 "Conclusion: A Continuing Challenge", Page 189-192.
Robert M. Solomon, Reflection - Key lessons learned from 2 Timothy, posted on Friday, 16 June 2017, http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/06/reflection-key-lessons-learned-from-2.html

[9] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, PART TWO: USEFUL TO CHRIST, Chapter 7 "Ministering to the lost" (2 Timothy 2:20-26), Page 96-101.
Robert M. Solomon, Reflection - Double duty of Christians, posted on Sunday, 24 January 2016. http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2016/01/reflection-double-duty-of-christians.html

[10] From "Faithful to the end" A Preacher's Exposition of 2 Timothy, Copyright © 2014 by Robert M. Solomon, ISBN 978-1-62707-241-0, PART FOUR: FAITHFUL TO THE END, Chapter 13 "Faithful To The End" (2 Timothy 4:16-22), Page 176-188.
Robert M. Solomon, Reflection - God's presence, purpose and promises - 1, posted on Tuesday, 07 March 2017, http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/03/reflection-gods-presence-purpose-and.html

[11] New Straits Times, The New Paper,  AirAsia captain explains call for prayer, posted on 01 July 2017 at 06:00 am, http://www.tnp.sg/news/world/airasia-captain-explains-call-prayer
Posted on Saturday, 01 July 2017, http://veryfatoldman.blogspot.sg/2017/07/airasia-captain-explains-call-for-prayer.html

[12] Leon's Message Board, Bible History and Geography…and more, Mamertine Prison in Rome, posted  on Thursday, 24 July 2014 at 1:46 PM, https://bleon1.wordpress.com/2014/07/24/mamertine-prison-in-rome/

[13] Jerold Aust, Profiles of Faith, Luke - Paul's Beloved Friend and Companion, posted on 20 January 2001, https://www.ucg.org/the-good-news/profiles-of-faith-luke-pauls-beloved-friend-and-companion

[14] Got Questions Ministrie, Book of Acts, https://www.gotquestions.org/Book-of-Acts.html

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2 Timothy 4:6-22 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A6-22&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:9-13 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A9-13&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:11 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A11&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:16 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A16&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:16-22 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A16-22&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:17 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A17&version=NIV

2 Timothy 4:18 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2+Timothy+4%3A18&version=NIV

Acts 28:30 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Acts+28%3A30&version=NIV

Psalm 23 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+23&version=NIV

Psalm 23:4 - https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Psalm+23%3A4&version=NIV