Friday, May 19, 2017

Singapore biologist captures never-before-seen cannibal 'T-Rex' ants

Source Website: http://www.asiaone.com/singapore/singapore-biologist-captures-never-seen-cannibal-t-rex-ants
By Alvin Kosasi, AsiaOne, akosasi@sph.com.sg, 18 May 2017


The Tyrannomyrmex rex (Trex) ant
PHOTO: The Tyrannomyrmex rex (Trex) ant
Researchers said that the ant does not live up to the reputation of the dreaded Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur.
Photo by Gordon Yong, National University of Songapore
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http://www.asiaone.com/sites/default/files/original_images/May2017/Ants.jpg
http://www.asiaone.com/singapore/singapore-biologist-captures-never-seen-cannibal-t-rex-ants



An ant named after the fierce, carnivorous dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex has recently been discovered in Singapore by biologists Mark Wong and Gordon Yong. They stumbled across an entire colony of it while doing an ant diversity survey in a forested area in Mandai.

According to National Geographic, the Tyrannomyrmex rex (T. rex for short) had eluded scientists since 2003, when entomologist Fernando Fernandez revealed that a single dead ant from Malaysia represented a never-before-seen ant genus (subdivision).



The Tyrannomyrmex rex (T. rex for short) had eluded scientists since 2003.
PHOTO: The Tyrannomyrmex rex (T. rex for short) had eluded scientists since 2003. The ant's tiny jaws reminded Fernandez of the stubby arms of Tyrannosaurus rex and other carnivorous dinosaurs, hence its name.
Picture posted by Annie Garau on 17 May 2017
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http://all-that-is-interesting.com/thumb/798.423.http://all-that-is-interesting.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/t-rex-ant-og-rotate.jpg
http://all-that-is-interesting.com/t-rex-ant-discovery



The fierce, carnivorous dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex
PHOTO: The fierce, carnivorous dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex
The genus of ant was first discovered in Malaysia in 1994 and was named after the fearsome king of the dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus Rex (pictured). But researchers have found the ants are unlike their namesake in every way, except their ability to turn to cannibalism (stock image)
Picture posted by Tim Collins For Mailonline on 17 May 2017 at 11:06 BST
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http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2017/05/17/10/406DCB6700000578-4513998-image-a-14_1495013223376.jpg
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4513998/Cannibal-T-Rex-ants-alive-time.html



The ant's tiny jaws reminded Fernandez of the stubby arms of Tyrannosaurus rex and other carnivorous dinosaurs, hence its name.

They say that in the years since, only a handful of Tyrannomyrmex ants have been found in India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and probably the Philippines, all of them deceased and incidentally collected from leaf litter.



Only a handful of Tyrannomyrmex ants have been found in India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and probably the Philippines, all of them deceased and incidentally collected from leaf litter.
PHOTO: Only a handful of Tyrannomyrmex ants have been found in India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and probably the Philippines, all of them deceased and incidentally collected from leaf litter.
Ants don’t have lungs & they never sleep. Worker ants may live seven years and the queen may live as long as 15 years. Australian & African termites can build mounds twenty feet high and at least 100 feet wide. - Mangala Kilpadi saved to FAUNA: Animals - In the Wild!
Photo: Wikimedia Commons
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https://d1fj41vxznxwbt.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/18042258/trex-ant.jpg
https://coconuts.co/singapore/news/rare-t-rex-ant-discovered-alive-first-time-decade-singapore/



Wong explained to Gizmodo the reason behind its naming, (Tyrannomyrmex would actually translate into "tyrant ant" (Tyranno is Latin for "tyrant"; myrmex is Greek for "ant").

Despite being named after a pre-historic savage carnivorous killing machine, the ants are actually shy and reserved. This probably contributes to why these ants are so difficult to find in the first place.

Both scientists collected an entire live colony and observed them for 10 days. The colony consisted of 13 adult workers, two worker pupae, one male pupa, nine larvae and five eggs, according to Live Science.



Both scientists, Wong and Yong, collected an entire live colony and observed them for 10 days.
PHOTO: Both scientists, Wong and Yong, collected an entire live colony and observed them for 10 days. The colony consisted of 13 adult workers, two worker pupae, one male pupa, nine larvae and five eggs, according to Live Science.
But unlike the eponymous dinosaur, these ants exhibited timid behavior. They usually became motionless and fled when other bugs came close, although they possessed a stinger that they would use if any other organism ventured too near to the colony’s eggs and larvae.
But strangely enough, the colony cannibalized its sole male, leaving the researchers perplexed about the act.
Screengrab from video
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https://d1fj41vxznxwbt.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/18034846/trex-ants.jpg
https://coconuts.co/singapore/news/rare-t-rex-ant-discovered-alive-first-time-decade-singapore/



The male pupa was unfortunately eaten up when he turned into an adult, but it is something "not unheard of", Wong told LiveScience.

In an experiment in which Wong tried to determine the ants' diet, he found out that they pretty much run away from anything.

He was quoted by National Geographic as saying, "I had a good laugh when I saw them respond in this manner to little millipedes, mites, smaller ants, and basically whatever prey I tried to offer them. They wouldn't even get close to honey-and only gently prodded [a] honey droplet with their antennae."



This Wingless Ant Is Exceptional Because The Three Parts Of Thorax can be discerned, each with a pair of legs.
PHOTO: This Wingless Ant Is Exceptional Because The Three Parts Of Thorax can be discerned, each with a pair of legs.
Photo by scientist David M. Phillips -  Art and Architecture of Insects
Fascinating Microscopic Photos Of Insects Reveal Details Naked To The Human Eye

https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-859C-fR2EGk/WR5oPPjU_vI/AAAAAAAAm7E/psndAAjJjDUmdWkJEVYPTie5aGy0WimmwCLcB/s1600/FA1.jpg
http://k33.kn3.net/taringa/7/3/7/8/1/F/lopeirene/FA1.jpg
http://www.taringa.net/posts/imagenes/18571990/Fotos-de-insectos-por-David-M-Phillips.html



They are found to be picky eaters, and can resort to cannibalism if needed. During the captivity, one of the male pupa emerged as an adult, but the other ants immediately ate him. Wong told Live Science that it was "unfortunate", but not unheard of.

After the experiment, the ants are euthanised and preserved for further studies. Both scientist had gone back to Mandai to collect more samples, but to no avail. However, Wong remains positive.

"It's a pretty exciting time to be an ant scientist who enjoys 'scraping it out' in the dirt," he told National Geographic.



It's a pretty exciting time to be an ant scientist who enjoys 'scraping it out' in the dirt.
PHOTO: "It's a pretty exciting time to be an ant scientist who enjoys 'scraping it out' in the dirt," Wong told National Geographic.
Photo by Vadim Trunov (Сanon EF 100 mm f 2.8 macro) - Thirst
Picture posted by Eric, (StreamMix)

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https://a2-images.myspacecdn.com/images03/29/3a47eb4cbe924d01a738cc37c96f6e20/full.jpg
https://myspace.com/elord2000/mixes/streammix-4238/photo/66452841


By Alvin Kosasi, AsiaOne, akosasi@sph.com.sg, 18 May 2017



Reference
[1] Alvin Kosasi, AsiaOne, Singapore biologist captures never-before-seen cannibal 'T-Rex' ants, posted on 18 May 2017,  http://www.asiaone.com/singapore/singapore-biologist-captures-never-seen-cannibal-t-rex-ants

Links
National Geographic - http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/05/ants-trex-alive-rare-species-animals/

Gizmodo - http://gizmodo.com/terrifying-looking-t-rex-ants-actually-total-wimps-1795291471