Monday, April 4, 2016

Reflection - Jephthah's Daughter - Women of the Bible

Source Website: http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/daughter-of-jephthah-bible
Posted by Karla Bohmbach on 20 March 2009. "Daughter of Jephthah: Bible." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. . Jewish Women's Archive. (Viewed on April 3, 2016)


The Sacrifice of Jephthah's Daughter
PHOTO: The Sacrifice of Jephthah's Daughter
Jephthah vows to God that if victory is granted to him, he will sacrifice to God “whoever [whatever] comes out” of his house first on his return from the fight (Judges 11:31). God grants Jephthah and his forces victory over the Ammonites. The rejoicing is short-lived, however, for on the return to his house it is his daughter that he sees coming out to meet him. Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow) the fate to which his vow has brought him.
Painting by John Opie (1761 - 1807) - The Sacrifice of Jephthah's daughter, 1790
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-8VNHx1GuIhk/VwJqod0uBvI/AAAAAAAAjfc/C4GhJR9hhu8YQ8iDYD4G1pdzzywlvmN2A/s1600/The_Sacrifice_of_Jephthats_Daughter-001.jpg
http://www.newprophecy.net/The_Sacrifice_of_Jephthats_Daughter-001.jpg
http://www.newprophecy.net/more22.htm



The story of this unnamed woman appears near the end of her father’s story (see Judges 11:1-12:7). Its position, as well as the events that it narrates, suggests that it functions primarily, though not necessarily solely, as a further explication of the character of her father. It is, further, one of the most enigmatic (puzzling) stories in the Hebrew Bible.



The Daughter of Jephthah, by Alexandre Cabanel (1879)
PHOTO: The Daughter of Jephthah, by Alexandre Cabanel (1879)
This unnamed woman appears near the end of her father’s story (Jephthah)
(Judges 11:1-12:7).
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-QwZAOom0qXc/VwJql8RlXVI/AAAAAAAAjfE/c9SaEV6wrasbpgVJYqGbUJzrS7cdHsJxg/s1600/Alexandre_Cabanel_-_The_Daughter_of_Jephthah_%25281879%252C_Oil_on_canvas%2529.JPG
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Alexandre_Cabanel_-_The_Daughter_of_Jephthah_%281879%2C_Oil_on_canvas%29.JPG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jephthah



The woman’s father, Jephthah, has a rather unconventional background. His mother is a prostitute; his father is identified as Gilead. But since Gilead also names the region in Transjordan from which Jephthah comes, the text may be implying that any of the men of Gilead could be Jephthah’s father. This questionable parentage leads to Jephthah’s being driven away from his home by his kinsmen. He becomes an outlaw and presumably builds up a reputation as a fighter. When his people are threatened militarily by the Ammonites, they appeal to Jephthah to be their commander, Jephthah agrees, being enticed by the promise that he will become their overall leader if he is victorious. But before going into battle, he seeks a guarantee of success by vowing to God that if victory is granted to him, he will sacrifice to God “whoever [whatever] comes out” of his house first on his return from the fight (Judges 11:31). (The Hebrew allows either the personal or impersonal pronoun.)



Does Jephthah not know that it was customary in Israel for women to come out and greet with song and dance victorious male warriors upon their return from battle, and that it is quite likely that his daughter will also follow this custom?
PHOTO: Does Jephthah not know that it was customary in Israel for women to come out and greet with song and dance victorious male warriors upon their return from battle, and that it is quite likely that his daughter will also follow this custom?
Picture posted by Robert Grigsby on 31 March 2014
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-NoRaDFpTmao/VwJqo34i3NI/AAAAAAAAjfo/M3CivFv5Ia4U1f9YeX6rmhLKmj3qSbvNw/s1600/did-jephthah-sacrifice-his-daughter.jpg
http://jesuschristfollower.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/did-jephthah-sacrifice-his-daughter.jpg
http://jesuschristfollower.com/did-jephthah-sacrifice-his-daughter/



The ensuing conflict proves victorious for Jephthah and his forces. The rejoicing is short-lived, however, for on the return to his house it is his daughter that he sees coming out to meet him. But while Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow)  the fate to which his vow has brought him, his daughter merely affirms that he must do what he has vowed to do. She asks only that she be allowed a two-month reprieve so as to spend time with her women friends on the mountains, mourning her virginity. This request is granted. When she comes back to her father, he does with her “according to the vow he had made” (Judges 11:39).



Jephthah's rejoicing is short-lived, for on the return to his house it is his daughter that he sees coming out to meet him.
PHOTO: Jephthah's rejoicing is short-lived, for on the return to his house it is his daughter that he sees coming out to meet him.
Picture posted by ccrealmen on 23 November 2015
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-n-JUE1acCwY/VwJqm2X7XQI/AAAAAAAAjfI/nzEV_aoYO8Ar0rzlRCI0qB4eke851tuJg/s1600/Jephthah.jpg
http://www.ccrealmen.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Jephthah.jpg
http://www.ccrealmen.com/shamgar/jephthah/



Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow)  the fate to which his vow has brought him, his daughter merely affirms that he must do what he has vowed to do.
PHOTO: Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow)  the fate to which his vow has brought him, his daughter merely affirms that he must do what he has vowed to do.
Picture posted by Shadows in Eden on Tuesday, 14 October 2014
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-tBEq1MUCLns/VwJqmlM8M9I/AAAAAAAAjfM/axWmGuApMQUv2qJThAydaFt7MrV37ud3A/s1600/Jephthah-statue_Emil-Wolff_%25C2%25A9_shadowsinedendotblogspotdotcom.png
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fMUFsFxBcdM/VD2HSGASLeI/AAAAAAAAGdE/4q_qAh-ZpxQ/s1600/Jephthah-statue_Emil-Wolff_%C2%A9_shadowsinedendotblogspotdotcom.png
http://shadowsineden.blogspot.sg/2014/10/jephthahs-daughter-darkness-in-gilead.html



The episode involving Jephthah’s daughter, partly because of its very brevity (concise and exact use of words), generates numerous questions. Readers want to know why Jephthah makes such a vow. The text does not offer any hints, such as doubts about his chances for military success. Does the spirit of God actually move him to the pronouncement of the vow? And in making the vow, does he not know that it was customary in Israel for women to come out and greet with song and dance victorious male warriors upon their return from battle (compare Exodus 15:19-21; 1 Samuel 18:6-7) and that it is quite likely that his daughter will also follow this custom? Or does he think that an animal will be first out of his house? (Animals were often stabled in a small room inside, and quite near the entrance of, the typical Israelite house. And animals were a common object of sacrifice in ancient Israel.)



She asks only that she be allowed a two-month reprieve so as to spend time with her women friends on the mountains, mourning her virginity.
PHOTO: She asks only that she be allowed a two-month reprieve so as to spend time with her women friends on the mountains, mourning her virginity. This request is granted. When she comes back to her father, he does with her “according to the vow he had made” (Judges 11:39).
Painting posted by  Free Desktop Backgrounds
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-K4U-RcR-zI0/VwJqkwHM3JI/AAAAAAAAje0/S5mNu6uxdPQBkCbSakCtn_ARsu23hvllQ/s1600/259173627.jpg
http://www.free-desktop-backgrounds.net/free-desktop-wallpapers-backgrounds/free-hd-desktop-wallpapers-backgrounds/259173627.jpg
http://www.free-desktop-backgrounds.net/Art-painting-reproduction/Art-painting-reproduction-pictures/Debat-Ponsan-the-daughter-of-Jephthah-painting-reproduction-oil.html



Another question concerns whether Jephthah’s daughter has prior knowledge of her father’s vow before she steps out of the house. The text suggests that Jephthah’s vow was made in their hometown of Mizpah; if pronounced publicly, presumably she would have heard it. Perhaps that was Jephthah’s intention—that she hear it and so take warning not to come out of the house first. But even if the vow was spoken in private, it is still conceivable that word could have gotten back to the daughter. And yet if the daughter did know, one wonders why she went out to greet him.



Jephthah’s daughter may have prior knowledge of her father’s vow before she steps out of the house. And yet if the daughter did know, one wonders why she went out to greet him.
PHOTO: Jephthah’s daughter may have prior knowledge of her father’s vow before she steps out of the house. And yet if the daughter did know, one wonders why she went out to greet him.
Painting posted by  NUDITY AND BIBLE - Sacrifice of Jephthah’s Daughter, school of Charles Le Brun
https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-8j4XAd2m4pU/VwJqnqNKrpI/AAAAAAAAjfY/3Fvhcyr3Ib8IUhmd9zGt3zmM2hKGSFB5A/s1600/Sacrifice%2Bof%2BJephthah%25E2%2580%2599s%2BDaughter%252C%2Batelier%2Bde%2BCharles%2BLE%2BBRUN.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_0dU2vLez2o/ViEJeJ5vp_I/AAAAAAAAUUA/lOtvRegreig/s1600/Sacrifice%2Bof%2BJephthah%25E2%2580%2599s%2BDaughter%252C%2Batelier%2Bde%2BCharles%2BLE%2BBRUN.jpg
http://nudityandbible.blogspot.sg/2015/10/sacrifice-of-jephthahs-daughter-school.html



Just as troubling as the daughter’s apparent complicity is that of others. We wonder why no one—not even God—intervenes. In the narrative of Abraham’s near-sacrifice of his son, Isaac, God sends an angel to prevent the killing. That sacrifice, however, was God’s idea in the first place (Genesis 22:1-14). And why do the people of the community not countermand the vow’s fulfillment? Why do the women friends of the daughter not convince her to run away and so escape her doom? And where is the daughter’s mother? Why is she not even mentioned in this story, much less presented as an advocate for her daughter?



Abraham’s near-sacrifice of his son, Isaac, God sends an angel to prevent the killing.
PHOTO: Abraham’s near-sacrifice of his son, Isaac, God sends an angel to prevent the killing.
Picture posted by Shadows in Eden on Tuesday, 14 October 2014
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-H8pHv3gxeG0/VwJqnhP6beI/AAAAAAAAjfU/LT9p7tW4qm47dbI3ip_FK8MT6epuxq_Vg/s1600/Laurent-de-la-Hyre_Abraham-and-Isaac_02.png
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-gvuCWuqRFLE/VD438Y3eZcI/AAAAAAAAGeg/RP62nQwrZvs/s1600/Laurent-de-la-Hyre_Abraham-and-Isaac_02.png
http://shadowsineden.blogspot.sg/2014/10/jephthahs-daughter-darkness-in-gilead.html



Another ambiguity of the narrative concerns Judges 11:34–40 the daughter’s actual fate. The text does not explicitly state that Jephthah actually kills her. Perhaps he merely offers her up to the service of God; presumably she would have then gone to work for a lifetime in a sanctuary dedicated to God. In that case, the lamenting done by both father and daughter would have concerned the loss for the daughter of the normative Israelite roles of wife and mother (a tragedy for Jephthah, too, since she is his only child and, without her children, his patrimony will most likely be lost forever).



The text does not explicitly state that Jephthah actually kills her. Perhaps he merely offers her up to the service of God; presumably she would have then gone to work for a lifetime in a sanctuary dedicated to God.
PHOTO: The text does not explicitly state that Jephthah actually kills her. Perhaps he merely offers her up to the service of God; presumably she would have then gone to work for a lifetime in a sanctuary dedicated to God.
Picture posted by cleopatre1955 on 02 August 2010 at 6:22 PM
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-OIu0RtJa7lE/VwJqk-GJRKI/AAAAAAAAjew/06wLi6-tbgAcpXWACQTWA4BICRoqOOvvA/s1600/3178597125_1_2_Aki8TVsL.jpg
http://i.skyrock.net/2603/74072603/pics/3178597125_1_2_Aki8TVsL.jpg
http://cleopatre1955.skyrock.com/78.html



Finally, what is the function of this story in the biblical text? Some suggest that it is meant to point up the rash and foolish behavior of Jephthah. But his unconscionable behavior would also have been a sign of Israel’s depravity and thus an argument for instituting monarchical rule, presumably a more stable and upright form of government than what is currently in place. This message is here mediated primarily through the victimization of a woman. Women’s lives and reproductive potential were essential for community and family survival. The loss of the daughter perhaps represents, in dramatic form, the dangers (amid apparent success) of the leadership of the judges. As a potential mother, the daughter represents the future for family and community. Her father’s shortsightedness signifies the chaos of premonarchic life.



The function of this story in the biblical text  is meant to point up the rash and foolish behavior of Jephthah. As a potential mother, the daughter represents the future for family and community.
PHOTO: The function of this story in the biblical text  is meant to point up the rash and foolish behavior of Jephthah. As a potential mother, the daughter represents the future for family and community. Her father’s shortsightedness signifies the chaos of premonarchic life.
Picture posted by cronicadeunatraicion on 30 December 2012
https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-K8__C-hXX64/VwJqk0JcQaI/AAAAAAAAje4/df3Z8PSVggk4BJaLsYn3_ZtpkX0GgfJtw/s1600/1hija-de-jefte-sacrificada1.jpg
https://cronicadeunatraicion.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/1hija-de-jefte-sacrificada1.jpg
https://cronicadeunatraicion.wordpress.com/tag/galileos/



Despite the possibilities of comprehending the narrative as part of the propaganda of the Book of Judges, the story of Jephthah’s daughter remains enigmatic and disturbing to today’s readers. Indeed, this tale of a nameless young woman, with scarcely a voice of her own and with her violent fate precipitated and carried out by her own father, is surely one of the most horrifying tales in the whole Bible.



The story of Jephthah’s daughter remains enigmatic and disturbing to today’s readers.
PHOTO: The story of Jephthah’s daughter remains enigmatic and disturbing to today’s readers. Indeed, this tale of a nameless young woman, with scarcely a voice of her own and with her violent fate precipitated and carried out by her own father, is surely one of the most horrifying tales in the whole Bible.
Picture posted by Shadows in Eden on Tuesday, 14 October 2014
https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-vCTJwGIdEtI/VwJqmtXxkwI/AAAAAAAAjfQ/VDLahios6wUrjgF4RU4eTJeqilmU8GzFQ/s1600/Edwin-Longsden-Long_Jephthah%2527s-Vow_The-Martyr.png
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-DmxQLnsBcHc/VD2IN60c9uI/AAAAAAAAGdU/Uyt0DsnYArg/s1600/Edwin-Longsden-Long_Jephthah's-Vow_The-Martyr.png
http://shadowsineden.blogspot.sg/2014/10/jephthahs-daughter-darkness-in-gilead.html


Posted by Karla Bohmbach on 20 March 2009. "Daughter of Jephthah: Bible." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. . Jewish Women's Archive. (Viewed on April 3, 2016)


A biblical city left defenseless by depraved ways . . . . . .
PHOTO: A biblical city left defenseless by depraved ways . . . . . .
Judges records a low time in the history of Israel. God’s beloved people are repeatedly given over to sin and idolatry, and are subject to enslavement by the Philistines and others.
Engraving by Gustav Doré. around 1880 - Levite calling for vengeance for the gang-rape murder of his concubine.
The Levite carries his slain concubine after she is sodomized to death in the lawless town Gibeah (Judges 19).

Gibeah was a lawless domain of the sons of Benjamin. Laish (in chapter 18) is seized by the sons of Dan. (Image from Dore´s illustrated Bible book)
Texts posted by David Tulis on 27 March 2014
Picture posted by Wikia (Mandarin)

https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-LQeEiKpEQww/VwJqmD_IhHI/AAAAAAAAjfA/pEp00skHAI8EjQMSTYt05aKLFfIuJKv0g/s1600/Dore_07_Judg19_The_Levite_Carries_the_Woman%2527s_Body_Away-1.jpg
http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/biblestudy/images/6/6b/Dore_07_Judg19_The_Levite_Carries_the_Woman's_Body_Away.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20091025112834&path-prefix=zh
http://zh.christian.wikia.com/wiki/File:Dore_07_Judg19_The_Levite_Carries_the_Woman's_Body_Away.jpg



Jephthah makes a sacrifice of his daughter according to his rash vow.
PHOTO: Jephthah makes a sacrifice of his daughter according to his rash vow.
There is some debate from the text as to whether or not Jephthah fulfilled his vow or not, but whether or not he did, it was still a foolish vow.
God knows we are fallible humans who are likely going to fail if we make a vow to Him. This is sin. The Bible also says that there is nothing at all wrong with never making a vow to Him. Therefore, it is wise to never make a vow.
Texts by Steve Shirley - http://jesusalive.cc/ques210.htm
Line engraving by J.W. Cook after J. Opie.
Picture from Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository

https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-06WAO7ITsZI/VwJqnrDtS8I/AAAAAAAAjfg/Dt_wxJI7TA0u_R9Ya126iaVyZPU2ItkYw/s1600/Jephthah_makes_a_sacrifice_of_a_his_daughter_according_to_hi_Wellcome_V0034290%2B-1.png
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Jephthah_makes_a_sacrifice_of_a_his_daughter_according_to_hi_Wellcome_V0034290.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jephthah_makes_a_sacrifice_of_a_his_daughter_according_to_hi_Wellcome_V0034290.jpg

 
Bible says that there is NO sin that is unforgivable (save for Blasphemy Of The Holy Spirit). PHOTO: Bible says that there is NO sin that is unforgivable (save for Blasphemy Of The Holy Spirit). Therefore, obviously, breaking a vow/oath to God CAN be forgiven. We must come before Him with true repentance, confessing our sin and God will be "faithful and just to forgive our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness".Jesus said in (Matthew 5:34-37), "but I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: (35) nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. (36) Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. (37) But let your communication be, Yea (Yes), yea; Nay (No), nay: whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil."
Texts by Steve Shirley - http://jesusalive.cc/ques210.htm
Painting by Edwin Longsden Long (12 July 1829 – 15 May 1891), an English genre, history, biblical and portrait painter.

https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-KXUOcYa2FDQ/VwJqoWOATfI/AAAAAAAAjfk/WM_6vyWCTZEdb59ltUxCGIsCe4Wze2plg/s1600/c0a24486d9b3.jpg
http://s018.radikal.ru/i527/1212/aa/c0a24486d9b3.jpg
http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/1800002/post250398274/


While Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow)  the fate to which his vow has brought him, his daughter merely affirms that he must do what he has vowed to do.
PHOTO: While Jephthah bemoans (express sorrow)  the fate to which his vow has brought him, his daughter merely affirms that he must do what he has vowed to do. She asks only that she be allowed a two-month reprieve so as to spend time with her women friends on the mountains, mourning her virginity. This request is granted. When she comes back to her father, he does with her “according to the vow he had made” (Judges 11:39).

"Dear Lord, We pray that we do not be quick with our mouth, do not be hasty in our heart to utter anything before You. Help us to stand in awe of You. Amen!"
Painting by Edwin Longsden Long (12 July 1829 – 15 May 1891), an English genre, history, biblical and portrait painter.
https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-WghHjaS2BGY/VwJqlscHpRI/AAAAAAAAje8/cK7yT2fcukcVORObeIth5IN7HmeduD7vQ/s1600/64817a9e1958.jpg
http://s09.radikal.ru/i182/1212/b7/64817a9e1958.jpg
http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/1800002/post250398274/




Reference
NIV, New International Version, Holy Bible, New International Version®, NIV® Copyright ©1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.